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Sine and cosine can be interpreted in multiple ways, such as the relationship between angles and side lengths in triangles, and as the coordinates of points on the unit circle. Since sine and cosine return exactly one output value for every input angle, they can also be interpreted as functions.

$y=sin(x)andy=cos(x).$

Sine and cosine can be evaluated for any value of x. Thus, their domain is all real numbers. Every output, however, ranges from -1 to 1 — the range of both functions is -1≤y≤1.The parent functions of sine and cosine functions are $y=sin(x)$ and $y=cos(x),$ respectively. Thus, it is important to know how their graphs look and some of their characteristics. Graphing them is done by first evaluating some inputs and obtaining their corresponding outputs using a table. Here, radians will be used, but the functions can be evaluated for degrees as well.

Plotting these points and connecting them with smooth curves gives the graphs.

$.$

Both functions have the
To find more sine and cosine functions, the parent functions can be stretched or shrunk both horizontally and vertically, leading to the functions

$y=asin(bx)andy=acos(bx).$

The amplitude is affected by the factor a. Notice though that an amplitude is always positive, while a could be negative. Similarly, the period is affected by the constant b. A larger b shrinks the functions horizontally, leading to a shorter period. Here, as well, b could be negative while a period is always positive. Thus, the amplitude and period of these functions are as follows. Amplitude = ∣a∣ Period =

The graph shows the function $y=1.5sin(1.6x).$

Using the graph, find the amplitude and period of the function. Then, verify them using the rule.

Show Solution *expand_more*

We can find the amplitude of the function by reading the greatest and least function values and calculating half the difference between them. From the graph, it can be seen that the greatest value is 1.5 and the least is -1.5.

Calculating the difference between these values and dividing by two gives us$amplitude=21.5−(-1.5) =23 =1.5.$

The period is found by identifying the horizontal length of a cycle. We'll look at the cycle starting at the origin, ending the next time the graph passes the x-axis from below.
This cycle starts at x=0 and ends at x=1.25π. Thus, we can conclude that
period=1.25π.

When a sine function is written in the form
amplitude=∣1.5∣=1.5.

For the period, we divide 2π by the absolute value of b.
$period=∣1.6∣2π =1.62π =1.25π$

Thus, the previous results have now been verified.
By translating the functions $y=asin(bx)$ and $y=acos(bx),$ every sine and cosine function can be created. The resulting function rules are then
*midline* of the graph and is located in-between the y-values of the maximums and minimums. The graph's intersections with the midline corresponds to the x-intercepts of the parent function.

$y=asin(b(x−h))+kandy=acos(b(x−h))+k,$

where h is the horizontal and k is the vertical translation. The horizontal line y=k is called the
Viewing sine and cosine functions as transformations of their parent functions, $y=sin(x)$ and $y=cos(x),$ makes it easier to graph these by hand. As an example, consider the function
*expand_more*
*expand_more*
*expand_more*
*expand_more*

1

Find the amplitude, period, and translation of the function

Identifying the amplitude, period, and translation allows the function to be viewed as the transformation that it is. For this function, the amplitude is 0.5, the period is
and it's translated 1 unit upward.

2

Draw the midline y=k

As the points intersecting the midline correspond to the x-intercepts of the parent function, the midline should be the first thing graphed. Here, the midline is y=1.

3

Plot some key points on the graph

Key points ranging over at least one cycle of the function should now be plotted, as they can then be connected with a smooth curve to create the graph. These key points are the maximums, minimums, and intersections with the midline. Starting with the maximums, they occur at
for $y=cos(x),$ which is once every cycle. The period of f is π, and it's not been translated horizontally. Thus, the maximums of f occur at
As the midline is y=1 and the amplitude is 0.5, the maximums will all have the y-values 1+0.5=1.5. They can now be plotted in the graph with the midline.
The minimums are located horizontally between the maximums, which is at
for f. These have the y-values 1−0.5=0.5.
Lastly, in-between every neighboring maximum and minimum are the intersections with the midline:
These points have the y-value 1.

4

Draw the graph

The graph can now be drawn through the plotted points, continuing periodically in both directions.

Riding a certain ferris wheel can be described using the function

Using the function rule, answer the following questions.

- What is the diameter of the ferris wheel?
- One ride on the ferris wheel is two full rotations. How long does a ride take?
- How high above ground is the entry of the ferris wheel?

Show Solution *expand_more*

diameter=100⋅2=200 ft,

as the height is given in feet.
$period=∣π∣2π =π2π =2min.$

One ride is twice this time, 4 minutes.
Realistically, the ride should start at the same height as the entry. That is, when t=0. Therefore, substituting t=0 into the function gives us the height of the entry.

$h(t)=100sin(π(t−0.5))+104$

Substitute

t=0

$h(0)=100sin(π(0−0.5))+104$

SubTerm

Subtract term

$h(0)=100sin(π(-0.5))+104$

Multiply

Multiply

$h(0)=100sin(-0.5π)+104$

As the angle -0.5π is equal to $-90_{∘},$ it corresponds to the coordinate (0,-1) on the unit circle. Thus, $sin(-0.5π)$ is equal to -1.

$h(0)=100sin(-0.5π)+104$

Substitute

$sin(-0.5π)=-1$

h(0)=100(-1)+104

Multiply

Multiply

h(0)=-100+104

AddTerms

Add terms

h(0)=4

We can now conclude that the entry to the ferris wheel is 4 feet off ground level.

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