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All linear functions share the characteristic of having a constant rate of change. It is often required to relate different linear functions by means of transformations, which will be discussed in this lesson.

### Catch-Up and Review

Here are a few recommended readings before getting started with this lesson.

## Translating a Linear Function

Consider the linear function The applet below shows how transformations can be used to translate the graph of the given function. Two points of the graph will be shown to keep track of the transformation. It can be noted that changing the value moves the graph horizontally. Likewise, changing the value moves the graph vertically. Is there a way of relating a horizontal translation and a vertical translation?

## Function Families and Parent Functions

Functions can be grouped according to their characteristics.

A function family is a group of functions that have similar characteristics. A parent function is the most basic function in a function family. The most common parent functions are those of linear functions, absolute value functions, quadratic functions, and exponential functions. ## Translation

In the previous applet, the whole graph was moved without changing its shape or orientation by changing the and values. This is known as a translation.

A translation of a function is a transformation that moves a function graph in some direction, without any rotation, shrinking, or stretching. A function's graph is vertically translated by adding a number to — or subtracting from — the function rule.

Every point of the graph of will be moved up or down by units, depending on the sign of Likewise, a function's graph is horizontally translated by adding a number to — or subtracting from — the rule's input.

Every point on the graph of will be moved to the left or to the right by units, depending on the sign of The table below summarizes the different types of translations that can be done to a function.
Translations of
Vertical Translations Translation up units,

Translation down units,

Horizontal Translations Translation to the right units,

Translation to the left units,

### Why

Why the Graph is Translated?
Consider adding a number to a function rule.
If is positive, this operation increases the value of the output for every moving the graph upward. Similarly, if is negative, then the graph is moved downward, because the output of the function is decreased. Now consider subtracting a number from the input.
If is positive, then the value of the input is reduced. Therefore, greater values are needed to obtain the original output, leading to a translation to the right. In contrast, when is negative, the input value is increased. This means that smaller inputs are needed to obtain the original output. This leads to a translation to the left. ### Example

Dylan wants to buy a new set of canvases. He plans to save each day, starting tomorrow. His math teacher told him that linear functions can be used to make a savings plan and provided him with the following graph. Here, is the number of days that have passed since Dylan started saving and is the total amount saved.

a Dylan plans to ask his parents for some money for his initial savings. If they give him write the function rule that adjusts to this new plan and graph it along with the original function.
b Instead of asking for money, Dylan decides that he will go out tomorrow to buy a new brush for meaning that he will not be able to start saving until the day after tomorrow. Write the function that adjusts to this new plan and graph it along with the original function.

a Function:

Graph: b Function:

Graph: ### Hint

a Dylan will start with and will still be saving each day.
b Dylan will have to delay his original plan by day.

### Solution

a Dylan's original savings plan was modeled by the following linear function with the assumption that he would not have any initial savings.
If his parents give him Dylan will have more than he originally planned on each day. Since each value represents his savings on a particular day, each point of the graph has to be translated units up. Therefore, translate units up the graph of the original savings plan. The expression for the new savings plan can be found by to the function rule.
Knowing this, the function of the new savings plan can be written.
Finally, both functions will be graphed on the same coordinate plane. b If Dylan goes tomorrow to buy a new brush for he will not be able to save money that day and his savings plans will be delayed by day. Therefore, he can draw the graph of his saving plans starting at instead of starting at This means the graph of the original savings plan has to be translated unit to the right. The expression for the new savings plan can be found by from the input of the function.
Knowing this, the function of the new savings plan can be written.
Finally, both functions will be graphed on the same coordinate plane. ## Keeping Track of a Jogging Course

Every Monday afternoon, Emily likes to go jogging in the park next to her job. She uses the pine tree seen in the diagram as her starting point to keep track of her progress. Following her physics teacher's advice, Emily wrote and graphed a linear function that models the distance in meters to the right of the pine tree that she has jogged. Here, is the time in seconds since the start of her run. One day, she decided to invite Heichi to join her. Since Heichi is not used to jogging, Emily said that she will give him a head start. Emily will start seconds later, and also she will start from the fountain, which she knows is meters away from the pine. Write the function rule that models Emily's jog, taking into account the advantage that she will give to Heichi.

### Hint

Both a vertical and a horizontal translation will be needed.

### Solution

Emily's jog is normally modeled by the following function.
Here, is the time in seconds since Emily started jogging. Since she is giving Heichi a head start, she will start jogging seconds after Heichi starts jogging. This means that at her distance jogged will be meters, so the graph has to pass through This can be done by translating the original graph units to the right. Furthermore, she will start from the fountain, meters left of the pine tree, which is Heichi's starting point. Therefore, at Emily will be meters to the left of the pine tree. This can be thought as her distance to the tree being meters, so the graph has to pass through To achieve this, translate the previous graph units down. Therefore, the function that models Emily's new jog is obtained by translating units to the right and units down.

## Early Stage of Video Game Design

Dylan and Emily are designing a sports video game. In order to draw different playing courts, they need to be able to freely move linear functions according to a function rule that is to be interpreted by a computer. In this stage of design, they are interested in translating This will let them adjust the size of the playing court.

a Draw the graph of translated unit to the left.
b Draw the graph of translated units down.
c Draw the graph of translated unit to the right and units up.

a Graph: b Graph: c Graph: ### Hint

a Two points define a unique line. This means that two points can be translated to find the translation of the linear function.
b Use two appropriate points of the original function as a reference for the translation.
c The translations can be done each one at a time.

### Solution

a Two points can be used to define a unique line. This fact can be used to help with the translation of the graph. Start by identifying two arbitrary points in the graph of Since the translation is unit to the left, these two points will be translated in this way. The translated linear function can be drawn using the new points. A better view of the translated graph can be taken by removing the two points. b Two points will be used as a reference again for this translation. This time the translation is two units down, so it might be better to choose a different pair of points. The translated function is shown in the following graph. c This time two translations are involved. These can be done one at a time. One way of doing it is by starting by the translation by one unit to the right, then translating the new line up by three units. The same result can be obtained by starting with the vertical translation followed by the horizontal one. Finally, the points are removed to take a better look at the graph. ## Identifying Horizontal Translations

The linear functions shown in the following diagram are related by a translation. Be careful with the sign of ## Identifying Vertical Translations

The linear functions shown in the following diagram are related by a translation. ## Relating Vertical and Horizontal Translations of Linear Functions

Horizontal and vertical translations of linear functions have the particular characteristic of being related to each other. In the following applet, a horizontal translation can be done to the linear function by dragging the red point. The blue point will keep track of the vertical translation of the function. In this case, a horizontal translation to the can also be seen as a vertical translation the same number of units. The slope of the linear function plays a major role in this. Now consider a linear function with a different slope. This time, a horizontal translation to the can also be seen as a vertical translation of twice the number of units. To make sense of this, consider the slope-intercept form of a linear function.
A horizontal translation can be done to this function by substituting for
By doing some algebra, it can be shown that this horizontal translation can be written as a vertical translation.
Therefore, a horizontal translation of units can be seen as a vertical translation of units — down or up, depending on the sign of
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