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Concept

Five-Number Summary

A five-number summary of a data set consists of the following five values.
  1. Minimum value
  2. First quartile
  3. Median, or second quartile
  4. Third quartile
  5. Maximum value
The median divides the data set into two halves. The median of the lower half is the first quartile and the median of the upper half is the third quartile The first quartile is sometimes called lower quartile, and the third quartile is therefore sometimes called upper quartile.
Five-number summary is applied to different data sets
The five-number summary describes the distribution of data values. It gives information about the central value, spread, and range of a data set.

Extra

The five-number summary can be represented with a box plot. Each of the five numbers is labeled accordingly.

Boxplot shown above a number line with a five-number summary from left to right as min:1, Q1:3, median:5, Q3:8, max:10.