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When we raise a number to $21 ,$ it's the same as taking the square root of that number.

The expression $16_{21}$ is equal to 4.

We determine the value of the expression $16_{21}$ on our calculator by writing the number $16,$ then pressing $..^ $ and finally writing the fraction $21 $ within parentheses. We finish by pressing $ENTER .$

b

Rewrite $27_{31}$ as $327 ,$ which is the number which multiplied by itself three times gives 27. We know that $27=3⋅3⋅3.$ Therefore, $27_{31}$ is equal to $3.$

We can determine the value of the expression $27_{31}$ on our calculator by using the same method as in Part A.