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{{ printedBook.courseTrack.name }} {{ printedBook.name }} An operation uses an *operand* on two numbers to generate a new number. The most common operands are:

- Addition $+$
- Subtraction $-$
- Multiplication $\cdot$
- Division $\div$
- Exponentiation $x^a$

Addition is to add two numbers, for example adding two and three equals five. The numbers added are called terms and the result is a sum. The symbol between the terms is a plus sign, $+.$

Term | $+$ | Term | $=$ | Sum |

$2$ | $+$ | $3$ | $=$ | $5$ |

Subtraction is to remove one value from another. For example, removing four from seven equals three. The numbers used in the subtraction is called terms and the result is a difference.

Term | $-$ | Term | $=$ | Difference |

$7$ | $-$ | $3$ | $=$ | $4$ |

Multiplication is actually repeated addition. If a number is added multiple times, it can be written as a multiplication instead.

$2+2+2=3\cdot 2$ | $3$ times $2$ |

$3+3+3+3=4\cdot 3$ | $4$ times $3$ |

$7+7+7+7+7=5\cdot 7$ | $5$ times $7$ |

When $3$ is multiplied by $2,$ the numbers are called factors and the result is called a product.

Factor | $\times$ | Factor | $=$ | Product |

$3$ | $\times$ | $2$ | $=$ | $6$ |

Division is to divide a number into parts. For example, sharing $12$ cookies with $4$ persons, each person will have $3$ cookies. The number divided is called the numerator and the number of parts to divide in is called the denominator. Finally, the result is the quotient.

Numerator | $/$ | Denominator | $=$ | Quotient |

$12$ | $/$ | $4$ | $=$ | $3$ |

Division can be interpreted as backwards multiplication. If the quotient and the denominator are multiplied, the product will be the numerator. $3 \cdot 4 = 12$

When a number is multiplied by itself it can be expressed as the number is raised to the number of times it's multiplied by itself.

$\underbrace{ b \cdot b \cdot \ldots \cdot b }_n= b^n$
The number $b$ is called the base and $n$ is the exponent, and together they represent a power.